Phrasal Verbs

A Phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and a preposition or an adverb and a preposition. It is comprised of two different speeches but gives single meaning.

Examples:
Verb + Prepostion = Phrasal Verb
Look + into = look into
Look + after = look after
Get + in = get in
Break + out = break out


#. Some of the Phrasal verbs with meanings l Verb

Meaning
Put aside
Save
Put down
Write
Put forward
Suggest
Put off
Postpone
Put away
Tidy up
Look into
Examine
Turn off
Switch off
Give back
Return
Carry on
Continue
Cut down
Reduce
Die down
Weaken
Bounce back
Recover from a problem
Ask out
Invite someone
Make up for
Compensate
Mess up
Commit an error
Rule out
Exclude
Run into
Meet someone unexpectedly
Leave out
Exclude
Dress up
Wear special clothes
Do without
Survive
Join in
Participate
Keep back
Hide something


#. Types of Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal Verbs are two types. They are as follows.

Separable Phrasal Verbs
The Phrasal Verbs that can be separated in the functional use are called Separable Phrasal Verbs. There comes ‘something’ or ‘somebody’ comes in between them when they are used.

Examples:
Please turn the lights on. (Turn On)
Pull the luggage down slowly. (Pull down)

Inseparable Phrasal Verbs:
There are some Special Phrasal Verbs in English Language which cannot be separable. They have to be written together everywhere and any time.

Examples:
Look after, Look At, Look into
I look after my mother. (look after)
They looked at the gate if there are any dogs. (look at)

Clauses



A Clause is also a group of words like phrases but gives complete meaning. It consists of a subject and a predicate. It contains at least a verb. The phrases can stand themselves. It may be a part of a sentence.

Examples:
The children who fought each other were punished by the teacher.
Classroom is a place where our careers are decided.

In the above sentences the text, in the bold text, is called clauses as they look like they are the part of the sentences. They define a relation with the other parts of the sentence.

A Clause can be classified into the following types. They are as follows:

Independent Clause
Dependent Clause

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
All the general sentences or simple sentences which can stand alone and having a subject and a verb are called Independent Clauses. They can stand alone. They never depend on other parts of the sentence. This clause is also known as ‘Main Clause’.

Examples
We are learning Spoken English on Internet.
This is an internet platform for teaching Spoken English.
The children are playing in the ground.
All the Indians are my brothers and sisters.

All the above sentences have subjects as well as finite verbs and are standing alone without depending on other parts. Hence, they are all called Independent Clauses or Main Clauses.

DEPENDENT CLAUSE
 A dependent clause is a group of words that depend on other parts of the sentence to give the complete meaning. They cannot stand alone. They always depend on main clauses. So, these are called as Dependent Clauses or Sub-Ordinate Clauses.

Examples
After coming from school, I went to my grandmother’s home.
I was writing notes when the phone rang.
If you work hard, you will succeed in the examinations.
Though the children were asked to complete the home task, they didn’t complete.

The words in the bold text in the above sentence are called Dependent Clauses and they are depending on the latter part in order to given the meaning.


Phrases



A Phrase is a group of words which gives incomplete meaning. It doesn’t have a subject and a predicate. The phrases cannot stand themselves.

Examples:
On the road
In the book
At the shop

A phrase can be classified into the following types. They are as follows:
Noun Phrase
Adjective Phrase
Adverb Phrase

NOUN PHRASE
A noun phrase is a part of the sentence and acts as a noun.

Examples
He wanted to learn English.
He drinks milk.
I saw a snake on the road.

ADJECTIVE PHRASE
A phrase which acts as an adjective in a sentence is called as Adjective Phrase.

Examples
The boy, with curly headed, is my friend.
The team from West Indies defeated India in the semi finals.
A man, in frustrated mood, was advised by the Council.

ADVERB PHRASE
A group of words that acts as an adverb in a sentence is called as an adverb phrase.

Examples
We were warmly welcomed to the party.
He readily accepted his mistake.
Children play games every day.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE COMPARATIVE WORDS


#. Usage of Late, Later, Latest
“All these words refer to time.”

Examples
The bus is late. (Time delayed)
I missed my friend, I will meet him later. (Next time)
This is the latest post that I am publishing. (New one)

# Later & Last
These words indicate the position. Here, ‘latter’ means the second one or the next one and ‘last’ means the end of the list.

Examples:
Out of two opinions, I went with the latter one.
I have picked up the last book in the shelf.


#. Older, Elder & Oldest, Eldest

‘Old’,’ Older’ and ‘Oldest’ refers to both (persons and things) whereas 
‘Elder’, ‘Eldest’ refers to only persons.

 Examples
This building is older than the next one.
Mr. Pal is the oldest member in the Lion's Club.
Satish is elder brother.
Seema is the eldest one in her family.


#. Far, Farther & Further
These two words are used to indicate the distance. When these degrees are used, they must be followed by ‘than’ in order to show the relation between them.

Examples
Mumbai is farther from Kolkatha than Delhi.
Raju helped me in trouble without any further thought.


#. Nearest, Next
There is a small difference between the both degrees. ‘Nearest’ means the shortest distance whereas ‘next’ indicates another one in the sequence.

Examples
It was the nearest market from my house.
The market is next to our house.