A Clause is also a group of words like phrases but gives complete meaning. It consists of a subject and a predicate. It contains at least a verb. The phrases can stand themselves. It may be a part of a sentence.

The children who fought each other were punished by the teacher.
Classroom is a place where our careers are decided.

In the above sentences the text, in the bold text, is called clauses as they look like they are the part of the sentences. They define a relation with the other parts of the sentence.

A Clause can be classified into the following types. They are as follows:

Independent Clause
Dependent Clause

All the general sentences or simple sentences which can stand alone and having a subject and a verb are called Independent Clauses. They can stand alone. They never depend on other parts of the sentence. This clause is also known as ‘Main Clause’.

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The children are playing in the ground.
All the Indians are my brothers and sisters.

All the above sentences have subjects as well as finite verbs and are standing alone without depending on other parts. Hence, they are all called Independent Clauses or Main Clauses.

 A dependent clause is a group of words that depend on other parts of the sentence to give the complete meaning. They cannot stand alone. They always depend on main clauses. So, these are called as Dependent Clauses or Sub-Ordinate Clauses.

After coming from school, I went to my grandmother’s home.
I was writing notes when the phone rang.
If you work hard, you will succeed in the examinations.
Though the children were asked to complete the home task, they didn’t complete.

The words in the bold text in the above sentence are called Dependent Clauses and they are depending on the latter part in order to given the meaning.