Speeches

Speech is also plays an important role in English Language. There are two types of speeches provided in the language which are used for two different purposes. They are ‘Direct Speech’ and ‘Indirect Speech’. These speeches are mostly used in our daily walk of life.

Speeches are of two types. They are as given below:
  • Direct speech
  • Indirect speech

DIRECT SPEECH

Saying something exactly what somebody said is called Direct Speech. In this speech, we don’t change the text of the speaker. The text what somebody said is placed within the quoted marks.

  • The teacher said, “All of you complete your home task.”
In the above sentence, ‘The teacher’ is the subject, ‘said’ is verb and ‘All of you complete your home task’ is the object. So, the entire sentence in the ‘Subject-verb-agreement.’

Examples:

Abhi told, “I am an honest boy.”
Madhu said, “They are learning Spoken English Online.”
Raju asked, “Shall we go to a movie?”
Arun said, “ We have to achieve the goal.”

INDIRECT SPEECH

Indirect Speech is nothing but reporting something what somebody said in our own words. It is also known as Reported Speech. In this speech, we don’t use quoted marks to show the voice of the speaker. We just change the form of the sentence and write in our own choice.
  • Madhu told, “I am an honest boy.” [direct]
  • Madhu told that he is/was an honest boy. [indirect]
In the above indirect speech, it is seen that the subject ‘I’ became ‘he’ and ‘am’ became ‘is/was’. We can understand that the changes take place in the places of subject, verb and tense form. Moreover, we also noticed that the text in the indirect speech was enclosed within the quoted marks.

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# The common changes take place of tense forms.

PRESENT TENSE



PRESENT TENSE
DIRECT
INDIRECT
Present Simple
Past Simple
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Continuous Tense
Past Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous

Examples

Anil said, “I listen to music.” [PrST] 
Anil told that he listens/listened to music.[PaST]

Anil said, “I have listened to music.”[PrPT] 
Anil told that he had listened to music.[PaPT]
 
Anil said, “I am listening to music.”[PrCT]
Anil told that he was listening to music.[PaCT] 

Anil said, “I have been listening to music.”[PrPCT]
Anil told that he had been listening to music.[PaPCT]


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PAST TENSE



PAST
TENSE
DIRECT
INDIRECT
Past Simple
Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Perfect (No change)
Past Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous
(No change)

Examples

Anil said, “I listened to music.” [PST]
Anil told that he had listened to music.[PPT]

Anil said, “I had listened to music.”[PPT]
Anil told that he had listened to music.[PPT]

Anil said, “I was listening to music.”[PCT]
Anil told that he had been listening to music.[PPCT]

Anil said, “I had been listening to music.”[PPCT]
Anil told that he had been listening to music.[PPCT]


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# Changes in the Model Verbs (Future Tense forms)

DIRECT
INDIRECT
Will
Would
Shall
Should
Can
Could
May
Might
Must
Ought to

Examples

Anil said, “I will go to temple tomorrow.”
Anil told that he would go to temple the next day.

Raju asked, “Will you come to the party?”
Raju enquired if/whether I would go to the party.

Madhu said, “I can complete this by Monday.”
Madhu told that he could complete that by Monday.


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# Changes in Time, Place or Position

DIRECT
INDIRECT
Here
There
This
That
These
Those
Tomorrow
The next day, the following day
Today
That day
Yesterday
The previous day
Tonight
That night
Today night
Tonight
Two days ago
Two days before
Last week
The previous week
Last month
The previous mont
Ago
Before
Now
Then